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Lab Testing Equipment - S & N Labs

Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
(FT-IR)

FT-IR operates by determining how a material interacts with infrared light. Certain infrared frequencies will cause the molecular bonds of a material to vibrate (resonate). Since different types of bonds vibrate at different frequencies, we can determine the identity of many materials by looking at the patterns of infrared absorbances (called a “spectrum.” This is particularly useful for organic components like plastics, paints and drugs.

Fournier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy

With the microscope attachment to our FT-IR, we can measure the infrared spectrum of even a single microscopic crystal of any material. Here is the spectrum of a single crystal of an unknown white powder submitted to us. (Fig. 1)

The spectrum was readily identified as methamphetamine. The process took less time than a commercial break from the TV show “CSI”. (Fig. 2)

Infrared Spectrum of Single Crystal
Fig. 1 - Crystal Spectrum
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Infrared Spectroscopy Crystal Analysis
Fig. 2 - IR Matching
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Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDX)

SEM-EDX is a combination of two approaches to analysis. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) uses an electron beam to view a sample, compared to a normal microscope that uses light. The higher energy of the electron beam permits viewing at much higher magnifications than are possible with light. Energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry takes advantage of the phenomenon that when a material is irradiated with a high energy electron beam, the sample will emit x-rays. The x-rays have energies that are characteristic of the elements being irradiated. This permits identification of the elements present in anything that we can view in the SEM.

Scanning Electron Microscopy

Sometimes small particles are observed in beverages or drug solutions where they don’t belong. To correct the problem, the manufacturer needs to know what the particles are. Here is a tiny particle found in a water bottle. (Fig. 3)

The spectrum was identified as rust (iron oxide). The manufacturer was able to locate the corroding metal fitting and replace it. (Fig. 4)

Particle Chemical Evaluation
Fig. 3 - SEM-EDX Particles
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Spectrum Analysis
Fig. 4 - SEM-EDX
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